Kale (2018) summarises the main point I try and make well when he says that beetroot contains “healthy sugar”. They state that “in contrast to other fruits, the main sugar in beetroot is sucrose with only small amounts of glucose and fructose. Because fructose reduces human exercise capacity, a low fructose and a high sucrose content are preferable, for example, in sports drinks.” I reviewed the chemistry of Nitric Oxide and Peter Ford, Managing Director at the University of California, Santa Barbara with speciality fields being catalysis, chemical biology and chemical kinetics sent me his research paper, “The solution chemistry of nitric oxide and other reactive nitrogen species” in which he and Miranda discuss the fundamental chemical and physical properties of NO and related nitrogen oxides (NO2– , NO2, N2O3, etc.) under solution conditions relevant to mammalian biology. The interesting aspect of their paper is their discussion of the solubility of NO. Even though NO exists mainly as a gas, it is far more soluble than I thought. They discuss the conditions under which it will tend to remain in solution and this has great and practical application for the curing industry -> I made detailed notes and will return to this at a later stage. Directly related to our consideration of beetroot and sugar, they observed that even though NO is only slightly soluble in water, it turns out to be much more soluble in organic compounds like starch and sugar. The high sucrose content of beetroot contributes then to the solubility of NO and in the presence of vitamin C, it will not escape as a gas! Vitamin C stabilises the betalains and prevents the fading of the colour at a pH of 4 and my fear was that we would lose nitrogen through the formation of NO or NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) which will escape either as a colourless gas in the case of the former or in a brown gas in the base of the latter if we drop the pH through adding ascorbic acid to manage the colour stability. It turns out that my fears were unfounded and it is definitely something I will get lab tests done to confirm. I still think that the direct addition of NO through plant-based material is a future very productive line of investigation and beetroot sugar is an ideal medial for its application to a meat system.
We transition to looking at a key component in beetroot which is not the most covered aspect of this superfood, but is any bit just as important in considering it. It also ties to Chapter 3 of our historical review which brings the matter of vegetable curing up as well as the use of sugar with salt and nitrates (saltpeter).
What is Sugar: an Ancient View?
We look at two definitions from the 1800s. The first is from Abbott (1864). “Sugar is the expressed juice of the cane of its name, and is used extensively in the cuisine. In France, it is prepared mostly from beetroot, and the sugar assumes the appearance of honeycomb. The moderate use of sugar gives a mellowness to different dishes. In America, a large quantity of sugar is obtained from the sap of the maple. Honey was used instead of sugar until the fifteenth century; and beverages were made of it, called mead, metheglin, pigment, and moret.” (Abbott, 1864)
A second is also from Abbott who quotes a much earlier author who said that “sugar is the sweet constituent of vegetable and animal products. — JJre.” (Abbott, 1864). The inclusion of animal products as containing sugar is instructive.
Is Beetroot Sugar and Sugarcane Sugar the Same?
The main sugar in beetroot is sucrose with only small amounts of glucose and fructose (Kale, 2018) Healthline.com did an excellent review of the differences between Beet Sugar and sugar from Sugarcane. The difference is slight, but there is a difference.
-> What is beet sugar?
First, they looked at what beet sugar is. “Beet sugar is derived from the sugar beet plant, a root vegetable closely related to beetroot and chard” (Monakhova, 2015). “Along with sugarcane, sugar beets are among the most common plants used in the production of white sugar. Sugar beets are also used to produce other types of refined sugar, such as molasses and brown sugar.” (Healthline.com)
-> Differences in production
Monakhova, 2015, is a great study to see the differences. From a consumer perspective and as far as its use as a functional ingredient is concerned, the major difference is in the production method.
“Beet sugar is made using a process that involves thinly slicing sugar beets to extract the natural sugar juice. The juice is purified and heated to create a concentrated syrup, which is crystallized to form granulated sugar.” (Healthline.com)
“Cane sugar is produced using a similar method but sometimes processed using bone char, an ingredient made by charring the bones of animals. Bone char helps bleach and filter white sugar. Though bone char is not found in the final product, people looking to reduce their intake of foods made using animal products, such as vegans or vegetarians, may want to consider this.” (Healthline.com)
“Keep in mind that other products, such as coal-based activated carbon, are often used in the processing of white sugar as a vegan alternative to bone char (Ravichandran, 2018).” (Healthline.com)
-> Works differently in recipes
“Although cane sugar and beet sugar are nearly identical in terms of nutrition, they may work differently in recipes. This is partially due to distinct differences in terms of taste, which can alter the flavour of your dishes. Beet sugar has an earthy, oxidized aroma and faint burnt-sugar aftertaste, whereas cane sugar is characterized by a sweeter aftertaste and more fruity aroma (Urbanus, 2014).” (Healthline.com)
“Furthermore, some chefs and bakers find that different types of sugar alter the texture and appearance of the final product in some recipes. Most notably, cane sugar is said to caramelize more easily and result in a more uniform product than beet sugar. On the other hand, beet sugar can create a crunchier texture and has a unique taste that works well in certain baked goods.” (Healthline.com)
I’m interested in testing the differences myself in bacon production in particular where the bacon is fried.
-> Similar nutritional composition
“There may be several distinctions between cane sugar and beet sugar, but nutritionally, the two are nearly identical. Regardless of the source, refined sugar is essentially pure sucrose, a compound composed of glucose and fructose molecules.” (Healthline.com)
“For this reason, consuming high amounts of either beet or cane sugar can contribute to weight gain and the development of chronic conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, and liver problems (Rippe, 2016).” (Healthline.com)
Health organizations, such as the American Heart Association, recommend limiting your intake of added sugar to less than 6 teaspoons (24 grams) per day for women and less than 9 teaspoons (36 grams) per day for men (Added Sugars, American Heart Association). This refers to all forms of cane and beet sugar, including white sugar, brown sugar, molasses, turbinado, and the sugar found in many processed foods like sweets, soft drinks, and desserts.” (Healthline.com)
Nitrite and Sugar
The question comes up, is there any relationship between nitrate and sugar.
-> Surges Relationship with Nitrates in Plants
It turns out that there is indeed a relationship between sugar and the reduction of nitrate but in vivo. See the following two references:
-> Radin JW, Parker LL, Sell CR. Partitioning of Sugar between Growth and Nitrate Reduction in Cotton Roots. Plant Physiol. 1978 Oct;62(4):550-3. doi: 10.1104/pp.62.4.550. PMID: 16660556; PMCID: PMC1092168.
-> Morcuende, R., Krapp, A., Hurry, V., & Stitt, M. (1998). Sucrose-feeding leads to increased rates of nitrate assimilation, increased rates of α-oxoglutarate synthesis, and increased synthesis of a wide spectrum of amino acids in tobacco leaves. Planta, 206(3), 394–409. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23385374
Zhu, Ivan, Getting, Tom. (2012) did a review of nitrate reduction using inorganic materials. They state that “traditionally, nitrate removal is achieved by biological denitrification, ion exchange, adsorption, chemical reduction, and membrane separation such as reverse osmosis.”
-> Novel Technology that Reduced Nitrates on Leafy Greens
Noor Liyana Yusof (2014) developed a novel method of adding sugar to plants by Vacuum impregnation. The plant tissue is immersed in the sugar solution and is then subjected to a partial vacuum, causing the removal of air from the tissue. When the atmospheric pressure is restored, the solution is drawn into the tissue, replacing the air.
This is of interest to us as far as nitrates were reduced on spinach leaves. The effect on the nitrate content of spinach following impregnation with sucrose was also investigated, which is why I was interested in the work. The results showed that a small amount of sucrose (5 g/100 ml) significantly decreased the nitrate concentration. Exogenously supplied sucrose reduced the nitrate concentration in the leaves by almost 70 % during 3 days of storage at 8 ºC, compared to non-impregnated leaves.
This is important as it shows that the fact that nitrates occur naturally on leafy green plants is not the end of the attempt to remove them from our diets and therefore the relevance of this work.
-> Sugar Affecting General Environment for the Microbes to Maximise Reduction
In our review on the use of sugar, we encountered the use of carbon to increase the availability of carbon for the microorganisms to achieve maximum reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Zhu and Getting (2012) refer to the same and state that “external supplementation of organic substances (electron donors) is usually needed to generate dedicated microbial communities . . . where intrinsic organic substances (are) have essentially been depleted. Generally, an external carbon source such as methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, glycerol, sugar, or molasses, etc., is used as a supplement.” which is exactly the point we’ve made of one of the values and uses of sucrose in live brine systems.
Directly applicable to our study, they then state that “alternative sources of electron donors, especially inorganic donors, are becoming increasingly attractive and compelling in order to replace or reduce carbon use” which is the focus of their article.
Non-Microbial Means (Inorganic Material) to Reduce Nitrate to Nitrite
The reason why we took a hard look at sugar is that we wanted to know if sugar, or any other substance, for that matter can reduce nitrate to nitrite. There is continually work being done in this field for various applications and we wanted to investigate a direct reduction process that does not rely on microorganisms. We are indirectly interested in this question because if processes exist to reduce nitrate, the same process may be of interest to reduce nitrites in order to eliminate residual nitrites from meat curing systems.
The field of water treatment proved very helpful and it turns out that there is a number of non-microbial ways that nitrate can be reduced.
Summary of inorganic substances that can potentially reduce nitrate by Ivan Zhu & Tom Getting (2012), https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2012.706646
Zhu and Getting (2012) quote this list and comments that it “summarizes the inorganic chemicals that potentially could reduce nitrate since their standard oxidation potentials are lower than or close to that of the nitrate/N2 pair (0.75 V). Some of the metals cannot be used because they are either toxic or expensive. Of these materials, hydrogen, elemental sulphur, reduced sulphur compounds, and iron and its compounds have drawn attention in the past because of their ubiquitous worldwide presence as well as being relatively inexpensive.”
In looking through the review by Zhu and Getting (2012) I see that ammonium is a product in most of the reactions which is undesirable for the meat industry. Similarly with for example the use of zeolite. See “Nitrate Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Natural Zeolite-Supported Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles“
-> Validate the difference between Beet Sugar and Sugarcane
See under “Is Beetroot Sugar and Sugarcane Sugar the same”, subparagraph “-> Works differently in recipes”. Test the two sugars in bacon production, fry up and evaluate. The claim is that beet sugar will give a better crunch after frying.
-> Nitrate reduction through a washing step
Factor [Prasad (2008), Huarte-Mendicoa (1997) into the overall hypothesis with the work of Salehzadeh (2020) to use water immersion (without cooking) as a method of nitrite reduction as used by Franco–Avila et al (2014) and described under heading “Trial Set 3: A Catholyte Wash Step” in Project Feedback May 2022
-> Encapsulated Additives in Meat Products
Incorporate the work of Ayman Younes Fathy Allam, Dolganova Natalia Vadimovna and Amin Abd El Halim Kandil. (2021) Functional Characteristics of Bioactive Phytochemicals in Beta Vulgaris L Root and their Application as Encapsulated Additives in Meat Products. Carpathian Journal of Food Science and Technology; Journal homepage: http://chimie-bio
Investigate the following Toxicity report by James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
“Feeding sugar beet to sheep has caused renal calculi, composed of uric and phosphoric acids with lime. Fresh leaf may also cause poisoning due to the 1% oxalic acid therein. Leaf may also contain dangerous levels of HCN and/or nitrates and nitrites. Betaine acts as a mild diuretic. Beet pollen can cause hay fever. Sugar appears to have caused dermatitis in two-thirds of the workers in one crystallizing department.”
List folklore on Beetroot, also listed by James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
-> Studies of benefits to human health
The work of Godofredo U. Stuart, Jr.’s listed under benefits to human health and the references under “References” must be studied and incorporated into the overall work on Beetroot in the future.
-> C Botulinum in meat products
Related to the general safety of plant-based curing, CHR Hansen alerted me to two important studies to consider namely:
- Project no. 18550, doc. no. 37215.3, from 26. October 2006 the Danish Meat Institute indicated that “the worries about the germination and growth of Clostridia spores could not be validated as cooked hams or emulsified sausages are usually stored below 7°C for approximately 1-2 months only.” (CHR Hansen)
- F.-K. Lücke, who came to the came to the same conclusion in 2003 as the Danish Meat Institute. (document 160 , “Mitteilungsblatts der Bundesanstalt für Fleischforschung”, Kulmbach, p. 95-104).
-> Future studies with sea beet to discover its likely uses in pre-history
I would, at a future time, get sea beet to examine its uses in pre-history. It can be found along the German coast as per the following work. Sarah Driessen, Matthias Pohl, Detlef Bartsch. (2021) RAPD-PCR analysis of the genetic origin of sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) at Germany’s Baltic Sea coast, Basic and Applied Ecology, Volume 2, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 341-349, ISSN 1439-1791, https://doi.org/10.1078/1439-1791-00061. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1439179104700560)
-> Betalains in Meat formulations
When considering betalains in meat processing Ceclu (2020) offers caution when he states:
- Betalains are susceptible to pH, oxygen, metal ions, temperature, water activity, exposure to light and enzymatic activities (1 and 2 below);
- High temperature, pH changes or enzyme presence could convert betanin to betanidin.
In this regard, three works must be consulted (3 below):
- Herbach KM, Stintzing FC, Carle R (2006) Betalain stability and degradation Structural and chromatic aspects. Journal of Food Science 71: 41-50.
- Sekiguchi H, Ozeki Y, Sasaki N (2013) Biosynthesis and regulation of betalains in red beet. In: B Neelwarne, Red beet biotechnology – food and pharmaceutical applications. Springer Science+Business Media, New York, 45-54.
- Wiczkowski W, Romaszko E, Szawara-Nowak D, Piskula MK (2018) The impact of the matrix of red beet products and interindividual variability on betacyanins bioavailability in humans. Food Res Int 108: 530-538.
-> Current Knowledge on Beetroot Bioactive Compounds: Role of Nitrate and Betalains in Health and Disease
Beta maritima. The origin of beets: buy book and study
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(24) Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Extract Ameliorates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity Associated Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Apoptosis in Rodent Model / Ali A. El Gamal, Mansour S. AlSaid, Mohammad Raish, Mohammed Al-Sohaibani, Shaza M. Al-Massarani, Ajaz Ahmad, Mohamed Hefnawy, Mohammed Al-Yahya, Omer A. Basoudan, and Syed Rafatullah / Mediators of Inflammation, Volume 2014 (2014) /
(25) Evaluation of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves during its developmental stages: a chemical composition study / Polyana Batoqui França Biondo; Joana Schuelter Boeing; Érica Oliveira Barizão; Nilson Evelazio de Souza; Makoto Matsushita; Claudio Celestino de Oliveira; Marcela Boroski; Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer* / Food Sci. Technol (Campinas) vol.34 no.1 Campinas Jan./Mar. 2014 Epub Mar 11, 2014 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612014005000007
(26) Use of Beta vulgaris as natural coloring agent for foods and cosmetics in Libya / Marwa M. Dlim , Sami G. Alsabri , Sofian S. Mohamed , Abdulmottaleb E. Zetrini / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2013, 5(11): pp 340-345 / ISSN: 0975-7384
(27) ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF BETA VULGARIS / Krishnaraj R*, Murugan R, Premlal KR / Journal of Science, Vol 6, Issue 1, 2016, pp 39-40
(28) Effects of Chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) Extract on Oxidative Injury in the Aorta and Heart of Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats / G. Sener, Ö. Saçan, R. Yanardağ, and G. Ayanoğlu-Dülger. / Journal of Medicinal Food. July 2004, 5(1): pp 37-42. / doi:10.1089/109662002753723205.
(29) Prevention of High Blood Pressure by the Beeta Vulgaris Root Solution and Allium Sativum Bulbs Solution by the Survey Study / Lavanya Rentikota / Health Science Journal
(30) Beta vulgaris / Wikipedia
(31) The antioxidant activity of Beta vulgaris leaf extract in improving scopolamine-induced spatial memory disorders in rats / Shadieh Hajihosseini, Mahbubeh Setorki, Zahra Hooshmandi / Vicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, Sept-Oct 2017; 7(5): pp 417-425 / PMID: 29062803
(32) Effect of Beta vulgaris Extract on Liver Enzymes in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial / Nikta Afzali, Seyed Shayan Ebadi, Hasan Afzali, Habibollah Rhamini et al / Hepatitis MonthlyL International Monthly Journal in the Field of Hepatology
(33) Antibacterial activity: Amarathus graecizans; Beta vulgaris; Polyconum patulum; Rumex obtusifolius: Ethanolic extract / Haniyeh Koochak, Seyyed Mansour Seyyednejad, Hussein Motamedi / Asian Paciific Journal of Tropical Medicine, March 2010; 3(3): pp 180-184 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(10)60004-1
(34) Studies on evaluation of physical and chemical composition of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) / Kale RG, Sawate A R, Kshirsagar R B, Patil B M, and Mane R P / International Journal of Chemical Studies, 2018; 6(2): pp 2977-2979 / pISSN: 2349-8528 eISSN: 2321-4902
(35) Phytochemical study of the Iraqi Beta vulgaris leaves and itw clinical applications for the treatment of different dermatological diseases / Nidhal K Maraie, Thukaa Z Abdul-Jalil, Anas T Alhamdany, and Hassan A Janabi / World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2014; 3(8): pp 5-19 / ISSN: 2278-4357
(36) Chemical Composition and Biological Studies of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang. Growing in Tunisia / Afifa Zardi-Bergaoui et al / Chemistry & Biodiversity, Oct 2017; 14(10): e1700234 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201700234
(37) Improvement of hypertension, endothelial function and systemic inflammation following short-term supplementation with red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) juice: a randomized crossover pilot study / S Asgaru, M R Afshani, N Sarrafzadegan et al / Journal of Human Hyperytension, 2016; 30: pp 627-632 /
(38) Antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) / Ozlem Sacan, Refiye Yanardag / Food and Chemical Toxicology, May 2010; 48(5): pp 1275-1280 /
(39) Evaluation of pigments from methanol extract of Tagetes erecta and Beta vulgaris as antioxidant and antibacterial agent / Mariya Sanni, Reena Lawrence, and Kapil Lawrence / Natural Products Research, 2018; 32(10) / DOI: https://doiorg/10.1080/14786419.2017.1326037
(40) Antitumor and Antiviral Activity of Columbian Medicinal Plant Extracts / L A Betancur-Galvis, J Saez, H Granados, A Salazar, J E Ossa / Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, July 1999; 94(4): pp 531-535 /
(41) Effect of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) intake on the level of some hematological tests in a group of female volunteers / Nora M Al-aboud / ISABB Journal of Food and Agriculture Science, Feb 2018; 8(2): pp 10-17 / ISSN: 1937-3244 / DOI: 10.5897/ISABB-JFAS2017.0070
(42) Effect of Beta vulgaris L. on cholesterol rich diet0induced hypercholesterolemia in rats / Mohammed Al-Dosari, Saleh Alqasoumi, Majid Ahmad, Mohammed Al-Yahya, M Nazam Ansari =, Syed Rafatullah / Farmacia, 2011; 59(5) pp 559-679
(43) Biochemical and molecular studies on the possible influence of the Brassica oleracea and Beta vulgaris extracts to mitigate the effect of food preservatives and food chemical coloorants on albino rats / Mohammed A A Sarhan, Ali A Shati. fahmy G Elsaid / Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, Sept 2014; 21(4): pp 342-354 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2013.11.004
(44) Medicinal Foodstuffs. III. Sugar Beet (1): Hypoglycemic Oleanolic Acid Oligoglycosides, Betavulgarosides I, II, III, and IV from the Roots of Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae) / Masuki Yoshikawa, Toshiyuki Murakami, Nobutoshi Murakami et al / Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 1966; 44(6): pp 1212-1217 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.44.1212
(45) Study of medicinal plants in Aravali regions of Rajasthan for treatment of kidney stoone and urinary tract troubles / Neha Sharma, Babeet Singh Tanwer and Rekha Vijayvergia / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Jan-Mar 2011; 3(1): pp 110-113 / ISSN: 0974-4304
(46) Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgars cicla and rubra / Paolino Ninfali, Donato Angelino et al / Fitoterapia, Sept 2013; Col 89: pp 188-199 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2013.06.004
(47) Effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. Leaves Extract on Anxiety- and Depressive-like Behavior and Odixative Stress in Mice After Acute Restraint Stress / Kunjbihari Sulakhiya, Vikas Kumar Patel, Rahul Saxena, Jagrati Dashore, Amit Kumar Srivastava and Manoj Rathore / Pharmacognosy Research, Jan-Mar 2016; 8(1): pp 1-7 / PMID: 26941529 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.171100
(48) Ameliorative Effect of Beta vulgaris Root Extract on Chlorpyrifos-Induced Oxidative Stress, Infammation and Liver Injury in Rats / Gadah Albasher, Rafa Ameer, Ayman M Mahmoud et / Biomolecules, 9(7) / DOI: 10.3390/biom9070261
(49) Triterpene Saponin Content in the Roots of Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Cultivars / Agnieszka Meoxzek, Ireneusz Kapusta, Bogdan Janda,, Wirginia Janiszowska / Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2012; 60(50): pp 12397-12402
(50) Kinetic Properties of Peroxidase Enzymes from Chard (Beta vulgaris Subspecies cicla) Leaves / Ercan Bursal / International Journal of Food Properties, 2014; 16(6) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2011.585729
(51) Synergistic protective effect of Beta vulgaris with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid against lead-induced neurotoxicity inn male rats / Nadia Z Shaban, Sara E Abd E;-Lader, Noha H Habashy et al / Scientific Reports, 2021; 11, Art No: 252 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80669-4
(52) Prophylactic Impact of Beta vulgaris L in Ameliorating Cyclosporine A-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats / Wafa I Albalawi, Nadin A Abdul Majid, Iman A Sharaf / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Alied Sciences, 2019; 8(2): pp 22-34 / ISSN: 2277-3657
(53) Sugar Beet Extract (Beta vulgaris L.) as a New Natural Emulsifier: Emulsion Formulation / Theo Ralla, Hanna Salminen, Jochen Weiss et al / Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2017; 65(20): pp 4153-4160 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b00441
(54) Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) rescues mice from y-ray irradiation by accelerating hematopoiesis and curtainling immunosuppression / Jinhee Cho, So Jin Biing, Areum Kim, Nam Ho Lee, Sang-Hee Byeon / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2017l 55(1) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2016.1237976
(55) Aqueous Fraction of Beta vulgaris Ameliorates Hypoglycemia in Diabetic mice due to Enhanced Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion, Mediated by Acetylcholine and GLP-1, and Elevated Glucose Uptake via Increased Membrane Bound GLUT4 Transporters / Ashraf Ul Kabiir, Mehdi Bin Samad, J M A Hannan et
al / PLOS ONE, Feb 2015 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116546
(56) Toxicity Study of Beetroot (Beeta vulgaris) Extract in Normal Sprague Dawley Rats / Fidelis E Olumese, Henrietta A Oboh / NISEB Journal, 2017; 17(3)
(57) Neuroprotective potential of Beta vulgaris L. in Parkinson’s disease / Vandana S Nade, Laxman A Kawale, Shankar S Zambre, Amit B Kapure / IIndian Journal of Pharmacology, Jul-Aug 2015; 47(4): pp 403-408 / PMID: 26288473 / DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.161263
(58) The Ethanolic Extract of Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) Ameliorates Some Red Cell Parameters in Phenylhydrazine-Induced Anaemic Rats / Favour, Nyoh Beshel, Justin Atiang Beshel and Ekamma Edet Ante / IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science, Jul-Aug 2018; 7(4) Ver X: pp 27-30 /
(59) Beet root (Beta vulgaris) protects lipopolysaccharide and alcohol-induced liver damage in rat / Bae-Hwan Kim, Se-Hoon Jung, Suryun Jung / Toxicological Research, 2020; 36: pp 275-282 /
(60) Phytosynthesis and Characterization of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles using the Aqueous Extract of Beta vulgaris L. and Evaluation of their Antibacterial and Anticancer Activities / Rajkuberan Chandrasekaran, Sangilimuthu Alagar Yadav and Sivaramakrishnan Sivaperumal / Journal of Cluster Science, 2020; 31: pp 221-230 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10876-019-01640-6