Useful Documents and Links

Here is a list of useful links:

A. Meat Processing Resources

– Ancient Meat Curing

Cured Meats in Ancient and Byzantine Sources – Ham, Bacon, and Tuccetum

– Anti-Microbial Interventions


Antimicrobials in Food.  P. Michael Davidson, John N. Sofos, A (Ed) see chapter 6 on nitrite and nitrite by R Bruce Tompkin.

“Lactate is the most popular organic acid used as an antimicrobial agent in meat system since it is also known to enhance meat flavor owing to the salty taste (Doores, 2005). Lactate has also been shown to improve color stability of fresh meat and to function as an antioxidant. (Brewer et al., 1995; Shelef, 1994). The addition of lactate may improve color stability by replenishing the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) when lactate is converted to pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase, thereby increasing the metmyoglobin reducing activity. In addition, deoxymyoglobin can convert nitrite to nitric oxide; the generation of excess deoxymyoglobin in turn results in the production of more nitric oxide and reduction in the residual nitrite level (Kim et al., 2006).” (Alahakoon, 2015)

Fresh Meat: Sodium Metabisulphite

Nigerian Considerations: (

NAFDAC Preservative Environment

1. Nigerian Food and Drug Administration and Control Act (1993)

2. NAFDAC Guidelines for Registration of Meat and Poultry Products

3. NAFDAC Food Additives Regulations (2019)

4. NAFDAC Guidelines on Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for the Food Industry (2014)

NAFDAC defers to Codex.

Codex lists the following preservatives (fresh meat):

a. L Ascorbic Acid

8.1.2 Fresh meat, poultry, and game, comminuted GMP 281 2014

b. Calcium Carbonate

Fresh meat, poultry, and game, whole pieces or cuts GMP 4, 16 & 326 2015

08.1.2 Fresh meat, poultry, and game, comminuted GMP 4, 16 & 281 2014

c. Calcium Lactate

08.1.2 Fresh meat, poultry, and game, comminuted GMP 281 2014


08.1.2 Fresh meat, poultry, and game, comminuted 20mg/kg 4 & 16 2011

e. Citric Acid

08.1.2 Fresh meat, poultry, and game, comminuted GMP 15 & 281 2014

Rather investigate using Catholyte water (Radical waters) (antioxidant).

Codex on Sulfites:

– Biltong

Processing of South African biltong – A review

– Boning Room Design

Boning Room Layout

– Carcass Wash

Technological Aspects of Acid Decontamination of Carcasses – Pipek, et al

– Chemistry

– Crate Trays

– Colour of Meat

Colour of meat from Fox (1987), The Pigments of Meat, from the Science of Meat and Meat Products.

Deboning and 5th quarter

– Encyclopedia of Toxicology. Third edition

– Fermented Meat Products

Fermented Meat Products

– Functional Ingredients / Organic Acids

From, a Table of Safe and Suitable Ingredients Meat Industry

– Freezing and Refrigeration (Historical)

– Honey


– Ingredients in Meat Products 


– Iconic Articled

The Dr Polenski article – arbeiten_aus_dem_kaiserlichen_gesundheit

– Labelling Different Cuts and Naming Formulations – USA

labelling-policy-book – what to call different cuts and formulations


– Lawrie’s Meat Science


Ethyl Lauroyl Arginate (LAE)- Antimicrobial Activity and Application in Food Systems

– Least Cost Formulations, Ltd.

– Mapanda

– Malondialdehyde

A Comparative Study Of Malondialdehyde Content of Some Meat

– Maltodextrin

– Meat Rinses and Carcass Spray

Microbiology Intervention Methods Organic Acid Rinses

– Meat Spoilage

Meat Spoilage A Critical Review of a Neglected Alteration Due to Ropy Slime Producing Bacteria

– Nitrogen vs Amino Acid Profile as an Indicator for Protein Content

Total nitrogen vs amino-acid profile as indicator of protein content of beef

– Nitrosylhemochromogen

Structural Characterization of Nitrosylhemochromogeri of Cooked Cured Meat – Implications in the meat curing reaction by Killday, et al.


Product Brief template:  Product Brief Template Aug 2017

– Preservative

Sodium Lactate (Diederick)

Sodium Diacetate (0.25% of FP) and Potassium Lactate (2% of FP) – see Sebraneck’s Toolbox

– Polony

Utilisation of Pork Rind and Soya Protein in the Production of Polony by Chrispin Mapanda (2011)

– Pig Breeds 

Pig Breeds

– Regulations of Processed Meat Products South Africa


– Recipe Books

>> Recipe Book by Deli Spices

Deli Spices Processed Meat Recipes

>> Steve B’s – Unknown Cook Book

American.  Many years ago an American friend, Steve, sent me this old American Recipe Book. The book has been lost and he did not send me the title page to credit the author. Anyone with information on the publication, please send me the details to  It is one of my most prized and useful possessions!

Bacon, Beef Brine Cure




Ham and Egg Jellied Salad

Italian Sausage, Hot

Liver Pate

Macaroni and Cheese Loaf


Pork Loin, Cured

Pudding, Scotch

Saleicca, Napoli


Tongue, Pork, Jellied

>> The New Cyclopedia of Domestic Economy and Practical Housekeeper. Five Thousand Practical Recipes and Maxims from the best English, French, German and American Sources.

>> The-English-and-Australian-Cookery-Book-1864

– Salt Reduction

L Lysine as jy 15% yeast extract en 15% L Lysine, 20% potassium chloride en 50%sout meng

– Salt

Effects of Salts on Preservation and Metabolic Activities of Fish
and Meat Microflora

– Skin Processing

Turns into gelatin at 40 deg C. Don’t go higher than 39 deg C. (Bart de Beer)

– Sodium Lactate Diacetate

sodium lactate diacetate
Fact sheet Sodium diacetate

– Soya


– Spices and Herbs

From Dr. Francois Mellett, a document listing spices-and-herbs-in-recipes.docx

– Storage of Frozen Meat

The Freezing and Storage of Meat

– Sodium Bicarbonate

On its antimicrobial action: Antimicrobial Activity of Sodium Bicarbonate

For a complete guide to legal requirements in SA, visit SAMPA by clicking on the image below.

– Temperatures – the watershed 68 deg C

68 deg C is the pivotal temperature that separates fresh, processed, raw and cooked. All products fall in one of the spheres.

Note: Thanks to Dr. Francois Mellette for the short impromptu lesson at his house on the back porch.

– TG

– Thermal Decomposition of Nitrate

The products of thermal decomposition of niter include NO, NO2, and O2 (Oza, 1945). Oza TM. Thermal decomposition of sodium and potassium nitrites. J Indian Chem Soc1945; 22: 173–180.

– Transglutaminase

Microbial Transglutaminase and its application in the food industry – A Review

Microbial Transglutaminase and Applications in Food Industry from Microbial Enzyme Technology in Food Applications.

B. Research Resources – History of Meat

Secrets of meat curing and sausage making : how to cure hams, shoulders, bacon, corned beef, etc., and how to make all kinds of sausage, etc., and comply with all pure food laws : B. Heller & Co

The New Cyclopaedia of Domestic Economy and Practical Housekeeper, Elizabeth Fries Ellet, Henry Bill Publishing Company

Wyman’s commercial encyclopædia of leading manufacturers of Great Britain, Wyman and sons

The Sketch, Ingram brothers.

The Cook’s Guide, and Housekeepers and Butler’s Assistant: a Practical Treatise on English and Foreign Cookery in All BranchesCharles Elmé Francatelli

The Family Receipt-book, Or, Universal Repository of Useful Knowledge and Experience in All the Various Branches of Domestic Oeconomy …, Oddy and Company

A Shocking Example, and Other Sketches, Frances Courtenay Baylor, Lippincott

The Farmers’ Cabinet, Kimber & Sharpless

New England Farmer, and Horticultural Register

Pictorial Times

The Magazine of Domestic Economy, and Family Review, W.S. Orr & Company

A General Treatise of Husbandry and Gardening, Richard Bradley, T. Woodward

The Lady’s Magazine Or Entertaining Companion for the Fair Sex, Baldwin, Cradock & Joy

The Gentleman and Farmer’s Guide For the Increase and Improvement of Cattle, Viz. Lambs, Sheep, Hogs, Calves, Cows, Oxen, Richard Bradley, Mears

The Treasury of Geography, Physical, Historical, Descriptive, and Political, William Hughes, Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, & Roberts

An Economic History of Russia, James Mavor, J.M. Dent & sons, limited

The Farmer’s Cabinet, and American Herd Book

Rules, Report, List of Subscribers, Maidenhead, Cookham and Bray Thames Angling Association, Diprose, Bateman & Company

Journal, Western Australia. Department of Agriculture

A Treatise on the Breeding of Swine, and Curing of Bacon; with hints on agricultural subjects, Robert Henderson (Farmer in Broomhill, Annan.), Archibald Allardice

The Book of the Pig, James Long, L.U. Gill

Transcaucasia, sketches of the nations and races between the Black sea and the Caspian [tr. by J.E. Taylor]. August Franz L.M. freiherr von Haxthausen, Chapman

Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Royal Society of Arts (Great Britain), Society

The Journal, South Australia. Department of Agriculture

Annual Report of the Commissioner of Patents, United States. Patent Office

Meat Production, a Manual for Producers, Distributors, and Consumers of Butchers’ Meat, John Ewart (land surveyor.), Crosby Lockwood & Company

Fraser’s Magazine, Longmans, Green & Company

Industrial Refrigeration, Nickerson & Collins Company

The Friend.

General View of the Agriculture of Buckinghamshire, St. John Priest and Board of Agriculture (Great Britain), Sherwood, Neely, and Jones

Pigs; their origin and varieties, management with a view to profit, and treatment under disease, H. D. Richardson, McGlashan

The Jurist …, S. Sweet

Live Stock Journal, Vinton

Realities of Irish Life, William Steuart Trench, Roberts Brothers

Railway and Canal Traffic Act, 1888, Great Britain. Board of Trade

Harris on the Pig, Joseph Harris, Orange Judd Company

History, Gazetteer and Directory of the County of Hampshire, William White, W. White

History, gazetteer, and directory of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, William White

The London Gazette, Great Britain, T. Neuman

Verzeichnis der von dem Kaiserlichen Patentamt in der Zeit vom … ertheilten Patente, C. Heymann

Chemist and Druggist, Benn Brothers.

The Spectator, F.C. Westley

Parliamentary Papers, Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, H.M. Stationery Office

Tourist’s Guide to Somersetshire, Richard Nicholls Worth, E. Stanford

Food & Sanitation, M. Henry

The Journal, South Australia. Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Journal of the Cape of Good Hope, Cape of Good Hope (Colony). Dept. of Agriculture

The Agricultural Journal of the Cape of Good Hope, Cape of Good Hope (Colony). Department of Agriculture, Government Printers.

Ulster Journal of Archæology …, Robert Macadam, Francis Joseph Bigger, and Robert Magill Young

Index to Publications of the United States Department of Agriculture, 1901-1925, Mary Alice Bradley

The Complete Grazier, Or, Farmer’s and Cattle-breeder’s and Dealer’s Assistant, Thomas Hartwell Horne, Baldwin and Cradock

Census Reports Tenth Census. June 1, 1880: Power and machinery employed in manufactures, United States. Census Office. 10th Census, 1880

The London Encyclopaedia, Thomas Tegg, U.S. Government Printing Office

The Pharmaceutical Era, D.O. Haynes & Company

The Saturday Review of Politics, Literature, Science, Art, and Finance, Macmillan Journals Limited.

Nature, Sir Norman Lockyer, Saturday Review, Limited

The New Idea, F. Stearns & Company

Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. General Services Administration, National Archives and Records Service, Office of the Federal Register

The Oriental Navigator, Or, New Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, Joseph Huddart, Robert Laurie and James Whittle

Experiment Station Record, United States. Office of Experiment Stations, U.S. Government Printing Office

A Topographical Dictionary of England, Samuel Lewis, S. Lewis & Company

The Rural Economy of the Southern Counties; Mr. Marshall (William), G. Nicol, bookseller to His Majesty, Pall Mall; G.G. and J. Robinson, Paternoster-Row; and J. Debrett, Picadilly.

A Tour Thro’ the Whole Island of Great Britain, Daniel Defoe, D. Browne, T. Osborne, C. Hitch and L. Hawes, A. Millar, J. Buckland, J. Rivington, S. Crowder and Company W. Johnston, T. Longman, T. Lowdes, B. Law and Company T. Caslon, and G. Kearsly


Accepted Meat and Poultry Equipment, Scientific and Technical Services, Meat and Poultry Inspection Program, Food Safety and Quality Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

The Western Journal of Medicine and Surgery, Prentice & Weissinger

The Indian News and Chronicle of Eastern Affaires

Weekly News Letter, United States. Department of Agriculture, The Department

Area Handbook for the Republic of the Sudan, American University (Washington, D.C.). Foreign Areas Studies Division, U.S. Government Printing Office

The Naval Chronicle, Containing a General and Biographical History of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom, with a Variety of Original Papers on Nautical Subjects, Joyce Gold

Agricultural Surveys: Buckinghamshire (1813), Great Britain. Board of Agriculture

The American Farmer, John S. Skinner

General View of the Agriculture of Buckinghamshire. Drawn Up for the Board of Agriculture and Internal Improvement. By the Rev. St. John Priest, Secretary to the Norfolk Agricultural Society. With an Appendix, Containing Extracts from a Survey of the Same County, Delivered to the Board by Mr. Parkinson, St. John Priest, Richard Phillips, Bridge street

A Catalogue of the Beasts, Horses, Sheep, Pigs, Poultry, &c., Shown at the Meeting of the Society at Salisbury, July 23rd and 24th, 1857. …, Royal Agricultural Society of England, Rogerson and Company

The Farmer’s Magazine Volume the Forty-Ninth January-June MDCCLXXVI January,1876, The Farmers Magazine January,1876

The Agricultural magazine, and journal of scientific farming [afterw.] The Agricultural magazine and farmers’ journal [afterw.] The Agricultural magazine and plough [afterw.] The Agricultural magazine, plough, and farmers’ journal. Mar. 1845-Dec. 1847. Jan. 1854-Dec. 1856, July 1870

An Encyclopaedia of Agriculture … Including … Supplements Bringing Down the Work to the Year 1844, John Claudius Loudon, Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans

The Cyclopædia, Or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature, Abraham Rees, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown

The Monthly Magazine, R. Phillips

The English Cyclopaedia, Charles Knight, Bradbury and Evans

Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, C. Knight

The Cook and Housewife’s Manual … The fifth edition, revised and enlarged, etc, Margaret DODS (pseud. [i.e. Christian Isobel Johnstone.])

Papers Respecting Illicit Trade East India Company East India Company

College Life; Or, The Proctor’s Note-book, Joseph Hewlett, H. Colburn

Chemical Experiments; illustrating the theory, practice and application of the science of chemistry, etc, George William FRANCIS

A Treatise on Food and Diet, Jonathan Pereira, Fowlers & Wells

Ireland of Today, The Times

Journal of Agriculture and Industry of South Australia, South Australia. Dept. of Agriculture, The Department

Creamed Honey (Australien)

A Survey of Meat Curing Methods, US Department of Agriculture, Circular no. 894, October 1951, Washington, D. C.

C. Needham (Chinese Chemistry)

D. Assyrian Cmemistry

Thompson, R. C.. 1936. A Dictionary Of Assyrian Chemistry And Geology 1936 (link is the text format to facilitate search in text)