Chapter 17: The Boers (Our Lives and Wars)

Introduction to Bacon & the Art of Living

The story of bacon is set in the late 1800s and early 1900s when most of the important developments in bacon took place. The plotline takes place in the 2000s with each character referring to a real person and actual events. The theme is a kind of “steampunk” where modern mannerisms, speech, clothes and practices are superimposed on a historical setting.  Modern people interact with old historical figures with all the historical and cultural bias that goes with this.

The Boers (Our Lives and Wars)

The Afrikaner Nation and Boers feature prominently in my story of bacon. The first and second Anglo-Boer war shaped our land and provided the motivation for setting up the bacon company. Here are photos from the time immediately before and after the second Anglo-Boer War (ABW). It allows the reader to visualise the context better. I dedicate this section to my friends who bring to life the Afrikaner, referred to as Boers, the Brits, and the black and coloured South Africans who fought in these wars and lived through these times.

I started collecting photos from the Anglo-Boer War. These photos serve to remind me and my descendants not only of what the Brit did to the Boer, but how the Afrikaner did the same thing to the black South African, of all tribes. Irrespective of faith or creed, it is true that the heart of man is more deceptive than all else and that all humanity has within its soul the propensity to perform unspeakable evil. The art of living is, like the skill of making bacon, something which does not come naturally to us. To embrace all that is good in life, to be tolerant, to give, to have the courage to build up and not destroy; to know that our time on earth is short and is best lived by compassion and caring for those around us is something we have to nurture in our children and in our own hearts, every day. It is easy to kill, tear down, belittle, destroy and look down on others. True greatness is far more difficult – to respect, honour, and value all life – this is hard work but is by far the most excellent way!

Most of these photos are also available on Google Photos in the following album for easy sharing: https://photos.app.goo.gl/NgBRUJwEapTMDv1A6

Americans in the ABW

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American volunteers welcomed by President Kruger. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels‎.

Annexing the Orange River Colony

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Annexing the Orange River Colony May 1900

Australians in the ABW

Dirk Marais wrote,

“Australia and the ABW
1899-1902

NSW Bushmen

The war between the British and the two Dutch South African republics – the Boer War – began on 11 October 1899 when the Boers declared war on the British. It lasted until 31 May 1902 when Lord Kitchener and General Botha signed a treaty, the Peace of Vereeniging. Australia, as part of the British Empire, offered troops from the six separate colonies and from 1901, the new Australian Commonwealth.

Contingents

The first colonial contingents arrived in South Africa between November 1899 and March 1900; the second between December 1899 and February 1900; the third between April and May 1900 and the fourth between May and June 1900. The 5th NSW contingent departed between March and April 1901 and consisted of the 2nd and 3rd NSW Mounted Rifles and those troops destined to become the 3rd NSW Imperial Bushmen, plus reinforcements for the Field Ambulance NSWAMC and A Field Battery RAA.
After 1901 additional contingents of soldiers were sent to South Africa to form battalions with squadrons from each state. These battalions were first numbered as units of the Commonwealth Contingent. Later the entire force was designated as the Australian Commonwealth Horse.

Casualties

It is estimated that about 16,000 Australians fought in the Boer War and there were about 600 casualties and deaths. Six Australian soldiers were decorated with a Victoria Cross. In our collection are some general records relating to the Boer War, such as regimental orders and photos of the NSW Bushmen’s Contingent.”

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Captioned breakfast on the Veld; looks like Aussies but has the WO got a lemon Squeezer? Photo and comments by Iain Hayter.
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Australian soldiers in the Anglo-Boer war, c. 1901. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais

Australian light horse Artillery ABW 1899-1902. Photo and caption by Dirk Marais.

Black Refugees, soldiers and ordinary people

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From the album of photographs of the 14th Brigade (Lincoln Regiment) Field Hospital in the Boer War in the Welcome Library. Photo provided by Andries Pretorius.
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Sol Plaatjies
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Reference: http://historicalpapers-atom.wits.ac.za/sannc-delegation-to-england-1914; Deputation of the South African Native National Congress (SANNC) to England in 1914, in protest of the Native Land Act of 1913. The members of the SANNC delegation to England as shown in the photograph were Thomas Mapikela, Doctor Walter Rubusana, Reverend John Dube, Saul Msane and Solomon Plaatje.

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Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje (1876-1932) Historical Papers Research Archive, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa; Sol Plaatje during his visit to England. The driver of the car is Henry Carsle, an Estate agent from Sussex, and next to him his wife Louise. Also in the car are their children Mary, the oldest of their daughters, Eleanor, Faith and Brock.

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Willem Snowball Prisoner of War. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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Black man at war ABW. Photo by Martin Plaut.
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Black men at war ABW. Photo by Martin Plaut.
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Photo supplied by Chris Pretorius.

Martin Plaut writes about the role of ‘black Boers’, as they refer to black people fighting for the Boer nations, and says that the role of these ‘black Boers’ is captured in this British ditty:

‘Tommy, Tommy, watch your back
There are dusky wolves in cunning Piet’s pack
Sometimes nowhere to be seen
Sometimes up and shooting clean
They’re stealthy lads, stealthy and brave
In darkness they’re awake
Duck, Duck, that bullet isn’t fake.
Chris Pretorius posted a quote about Plaatjies: “In 1932, Solomon Tshekisho (Sol) Plaatje, intellectual, journalist, linguist, politician, translator and writer, born at Doornfontein near Boshof, OFS in 1876, passed away in Soweto at the age of 56. He was (amongst others) court translator for the British during the Siege of Mafeking and diarized his experiences, which was published posthumously.”

Bloemfontein

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Bloemfontein se ou markplein vanaf die dak van die Poskantoor. 1880’s. Foto verskaf deur Nico Moolman.
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Voor Bloemfontein teer strate gehad het. Foto verskaf deur Nico Moolman.

Boer Warrior

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Hans Swart. Photo supplied by Nico Moolman. Sent to him by Piet Lombard from Heilbron.
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Bittereinders vas gestaan tot die laaste! Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.
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Boer gesin “Sharpshooters”Oud en Jonk was deel van die oorlog ABO 1899-1902. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais‎.
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Danie Theron en Pres.Steyn in gesprek. ABO 1899-1902. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.
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Boer warriors. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.
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Anglo-Boere Oorlog helde bymekaar as senior Oudstryders gedurende die 1940’s. Foto verskaf deur Nico Moolman.

Louis Botha

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In ou Vryheid…1887.. Die latere generaal Louis Botha staan 3de van regs. Foto verskaf deur Nico Moolman.

Brandwater Basin (Where my great Grandfather surrendered to the British – ABW)

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Sentry at a blockhouse in the Brandwater Basin. Photo supplied by Jaun de Vries.

British POW’s

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British Prisoners of War at the Waterval Camp North of Pretoria. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.

Bermuda, Hawkins Island

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Prisoners of war on Hawkins Island, Bermuda. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels‎.
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Prisoners of war on Hawkins Island, Bermuda. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels‎.
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Prisoners of war on Hawkins Island, Bermuda. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels‎.

Canadians fighting in the ABW on the side of Britain

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Canadian troops under fire; Field Hospital; Battle of Paardenberg Drift; 19 February 1900.
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Canadians climbing a kopje. Supplied by Tinus Myburgh.

Cape Town

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A very busy Cape Town harbour in 1900. The Anglo-Boer War is in full swing as men and supplies are brought ashore and transported to the various battles being fought in Northern Cape. Photo and comment supplied by Grant Findlater (Dr Lock).
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Kaapstad hawe…1870’s. Foto beskikbaar gestel deur Nico Moolman.
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‘n Ingekleurde Poskaart van Kaapstad uit die jare 1870/80’s. Foto verskaf deur Nico Moolman.
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The Pier, Rogge Bay, Cape Town. Sundays were a favoured day for outings on the Pier at the end of Adderley Street. In this photo from the early 1900s, people gather on the beach to watch fishermen bring in their catch while a number of small fishing boats lie at anchor at the lee of the pier. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.
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Photo supplied by Naeem Dadabhay‎.
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The Theatre drawing by Lady Anne Barnard ca 1802. Photo and description by Stephan Lategan.
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Washer women at the seasonal wetland on Rondebosch Common, on Campground Road
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Sea Point 1856. One of the first open-air photos taken around Cape Town. The future daughter-in-law of a certain Dr James Cameron. Photo by Andre Strydom.

Children, Concentration Camps and War

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Jong boerekinders tydens die oorlog in Johannesburg. (Uit: Erwe vir ons kinders: Kinderhelde 1) Photo supplied by Jaun de Vries.
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Medical staff in the Bloemfontein Concentration Camp. Photo by Elria Wessels.
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Medical staff in the Bloemfontein Concentration Camp and one of the patients (her name was Lizzie van Zyl). Photo by Elria Wessels. Tony Van Der Helm writes that “she is holding a cloth doll under her right shoulder and evidently died within the hour after the photo was taken. Speaking under correction, I think the doll was given to her by Emily Hobhouse.”
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Women on their way to a concentration camp. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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Women on their way to a concentration camp. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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Women on their way to a concentration camp. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.

Crossing the River

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British troops watch while a train of transport-wagons cross a drift during the Anglo-Boer War. 1899-1902. In the background one can observe a railway bridge destroyed by the retreating Boer forces. Supplied by Dirk Marais.

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British artillery crossing a stream. Location unknown! From album of photographs of the 14th Brigade (Lincoln Regiment) Field Hospital in the Boer War in the Welcome Library. Photo supplied by Andries Pretorius. Photo supplied by Andries Pretorius.
British artillery crossing a stream. Location unknown! From album of photographs of the 14th Brigade (Lincoln Regiment) Field Hospital in the Boer War in the Welcome Library. Photo supplied by Andries Pretorius. Photo supplied by Andries Pretorius.
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Crossing the Vaal. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.
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British forces crossing a river! Exact location not given. From the album of photographs of the 14th Brigade (Lincoln Regiment) Field Hospital in the Boer War in the Welcome Library. Photo supplied by Andries Pretorius.
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“Ei Kona horse” ABW labourers crossing a stream on their way to work From the album of photos of the 14th Brigade (Lincoln Regiment) Field Hospital in the Boer War in the Welcome Library.
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Royal Irish Rifles crossing the Vaal River. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels‎.
Modder rivier brug 1900, supplied by Dirk Marais.

Colesberg ABW

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British Scouts Firing at a Boer Patrol Commando near Colesberg! Photo supplied by Dirk Marais

Concentration Camps

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Howick Concentration Camp and some women and children waiting for the water. Some children and women in front of their tents. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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Howick Concentration Camp and some women and children waiting for the water. Some children and women in front of their tents. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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Howick Concentration Camp and some women and children waiting for the water. Some children and women in front of their tents. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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Howick Concentration Camp and some women and children waiting for the water. Some children and women in front of their tents. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels

Convoy

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Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.

Below, Boers Entering Van Rhyndsdorp, Photo supplied by Iain Hayter.

Boers Entering Van Rhyndsdorp,1901 Under the command of Genl JBM Hertzog. Photo supplied by Iain Hayter.

Genl. De la Rey

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General de La Rey on his horse. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels‎.

Gen. De Wet, Christiaan.

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Pres.MT Steyn en Genl.De Wet met besoek aan Pres.Steyn se plaas Onze Rust 1909. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.
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Die sout van die aarde. Tant Nelie en oom Christiaan. Foto verskaf deur Nico Moolman.
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Christiaan De Wet and boet Piet de Wet…. ( amongst others.) Here with Prez Steyn ……….Pre ABW… Foto verskaf deur Nico Moolman.
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A rather sad end to a fighting man’s career. Gen De Wet on the backseat of a motor car after being captured during the rebellion 1914/15. Foto verskaf deur Nico Moolman.
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What De Wet loved best during the ABW. Foto verskaf deur Nico Moolman.
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De Wet being escorted in Norvalspont Camp by cheerful ladies after Surrender briefing. Foto supplied by Nico Moolman.
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Gen De Wet oversees the stacking of captured British munitions at Roodewal before blasting it to smithereens…OHS…. Foto supplied by Nico Moolman.
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General De Wet’s bodyguard and staff. Foto supplied by Nico Moolman.
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‘The Big 3’ Generals in Netherlands – 22 August 1902 de Wet, de la Rey and Botha . Photo Credit – Nico Moolman
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Genl De Wet , addressing the bewildered at Norvalspont con camp on the peace conditions … post Melrose House agreement . Later to be known as the Peace of Vereeniging. ABW Foto supplied by Nico Moolman.
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Genl De Wet drumming up support for the Boer cause in Potchefstroom in August 1900 , after the first farms were torched by the British. Foto supplied by Nico Moolman.
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The family De Wet…During the ABW. Foto supplied by Nico Moolman.
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De Wet riding through Kroonstad with Archie Coulson ( interpreter) to his right and other staff members. Archie’s brother fought on British side. Foto supplied by Nico Moolman.
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Genl De Wet and his son Danie. …Danie was later killed in action at Mushroom Valley Winburg during the Rebellion of 1914. Foto supplied by Nico Moolman.
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Braving the cold ….De Wet and French ….Talking Peace… End of ABW. Foto supplied by Nico Moolman.
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This amazing set of photos by Dirk Marais. Generaal De Wet en sy Kommando 1901 Potchefstroom.
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This amazing set of photos by Dirk Marais. Generaal De Wet en sy Kommando 1901 Potchefstroom.

The newspaper article is from a 1950’s Sunday Times article. Who is the “Pieter” referred to in the article? There was a Pieter de Villiers Graaff who was known as the Cape Rebel (Kaapse Rebel). He was a cousin of Sir David de Villiers Graaff, who is featured prominently in my work on bacon. Pieter participated in 25 battles in the ABW against the English and on 24 March 1901 he was captured and sent to India as a POW where he remained for the duration of the war. I doubt if the Sunday Times article refers to him. He did, however, have a son, also named Pieter de Villiers Graaff. He was born on December 16, 1911 and passed away on July 11, 1988. He was 76.

(Reference: Sir David Pieter de Villiers-Graaff, https://www.geni.com/people/Pieter-Graaff/6000000013388531529# and https://www.geni.com/people/Pieter-Hendrik-de-Villiers-Graaff/6000000007158098655)

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This amazing set of photos by Dirk Marais. Generaal De Wet en sy Kommando 1901 Potchefstroom.
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Funeral of Mrs CR de Wet at Dewetsdorp in May 1934. A forgotten widow. Foto supplied by Nico Moolman.
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Funeral of Mrs CR de Wet at Dewetsdorp in May 1934. A forgotten widow. Foto supplied by Nico Moolman.
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Funeral of Mrs CR de Wet at Dewetsdorp in May 1934. A forgotten widow. Foto supplied by Nico Moolman.

Dutch Volunteers

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The Dutch volunteers having a bite to eat. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.

Diggers during the Gold Rush

Lydenburg /Pilgrimsrest area during early gold rush about 1873. Supplied by Peter Boright‎.

District Six

District Six (Afrikaans Distrik Ses) is a former inner-city residential area in Cape Town. Over 60,000 of its inhabitants were forcibly removed during the 1970s by the apartheid regime.

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Photo supplied by Naeem Dadabhay‎.
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Photo supplied by Naeem Dadabhay‎.
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Photo supplied by Conrad Ludski‎.
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Destruction of District Six. Circa 1974. Photo and description supplied by Shereen Leo Sherie.

Farm Life

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Op “Viljoenshoek ” se plaaswerf naby Lindley 1920’s. Foto supplied by Nico Moolman.

Diyatalawa and Ragama, Ceylon (Diyatalawa is where my great grandfather was a POW – ABW)

My personal interest in the Diyatalawa camp is that my grandfather’s brother, Timo Kok, was held there as a POW. I record the account of his capture and subsequent incarceration in The Castlemaine Bacon Company. Below the Smuts photos, I also have a photo section dedicated to him. Dirk Marais gives us the following details about this camp:

The Diyatalawa Garrison is a common name used for collection of military bases of the Sri Lanka Army located in and around the garrison town Diyatalawa in the Uva Province. Sometimes it is referred to as the Diyatalawa Cantonment. It is one of the oldest military garrisons in Sri Lanka. It is home to the several training centers of the army, including the Sri Lanka Military Academy and has a detachment of the Gemunu Watch. The Sri Lanka Army Medical Corps maintains a base hospital in Diyatalawa. SLAF Diyatalawa is situated in close proximity.

It is not exactly known as to when Diyatalawa became a training station for troops, but available records show that it was selected around 1885, when the British Army first established a garrison at Diyatalawa. At that time training was conducted at the Imperial Camp, which is presently occupied by the Gemunu Watch troops. In 1900, the British War Office constructed a concentration camp in Diyatalawa to house Boer prisoners captured in the Second Boer War. Initially constructed to house 2500 prisoners and 1000 guards and staff, the number of prisoners increased to 5000. During World War I an internment camp for enemy aliens was set up.

Early in World War II the camp was reopened and German nationals resident in Hong Kong and Singapore, as well as many sailors, like those removed from the Asama Maru in violation of international law, were housed here. Also imprisoned were Buddhist monks of German extraction like Nyanaponika and Govinda Anagarika who had acquired British citizenship. In June 1941 most of the sailors were transferred to Canada. The section for Germans was sensibly divided in a pro- and anti-Nazi wing. There was also a section set up to house Italian POWs. After the Japanese started bombing the island, inmates were on 23 February 1942 transferred to camps on the mainland. Males usually went to Dehradun.

After independence the facilities of the British Army were taken over by the newly established Ceylon Army, and Diyatalawa became the primary training grounds for the young army with the establishment in 1950 the Army Recruit Training Depot later renamed at the Army Training Centre. Several of the army’s regiments were resided here, 1st Field Squadron, Ceylon Engineers (1951), Sri Lanka Sinha Regiment (1956), Gemunu Watch (1962).

The Royal Navy had a rest camp, HMS Uva, which was situated at Diyatalawa with recreational facilities; this was later taken over by the Royal Ceylon Navy in 1956, commissioning it as HMCYS Rangalla and established its training center there. They had to move out in 1962 and it was taken over by the Gemunu Watch.

On 14 March 2013, the Security Forces Headquarters – Central the youngest of the seven commands of the Sri Lanka Army – was formed at Diyatalawa. Prior to this Diyatalawa served as an Area Headquarters.

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Rugby field, Prisoner of War Camp, Diyatalawa, Ceylon. Photo by Elria Wessels‎.

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POW Carting firewood. Prisoner of War Camp, Diyatalawa, Ceylon. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais
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Main Gate Diyatalawa POW Camp Ceylon and the camp and some of the POWs held there. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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Diyatalawa POW Camp Ceylon. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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Diyatalawa POW Camp Ceylon, Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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Diyatalawa POW Camp Ceylon, Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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Diyatalawa POW Camp Ceylon, Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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Kinders as so Jonk as Krygsgevangenes geneem hoe hartseer! Diyatalawa Camp, Ceylon. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.
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Prisoner of War, POW Camp, Ragama, Ceylon. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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Prisoner of War, POW Camp, Ragama, Ceylon. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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Prisoner of War, POW Camp, Ragama, Ceylon. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.

Dorsland Trek

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Daar was die Groot Trek in Suid Afrika gewees , maar dan die Dorsland – Angola trekkers. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.

Duitswes

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‘ Die osse stap aan deur die stowwe..geduldig..gedienstig…gedwee..” Duitswes…1915. Foto verskaf deur Nico Moolman.

Eastern Cape

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Boer trenches at Hlangweni. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels‎.

Free State

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Nagmaal te Heilbron. 1890’s. Photo supplied by Nico Moolman.

Germans fighting for the Boers in the ABW

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Housing

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‘n Ou kantstraat Boere-dorpshuis in die platteland …. 1890’s. Photo supplied by Nico Moolman.

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An old house in yesterday’s Vryheid. Foto supplied by Nico Moolman.
Old Afrikaner house. Many did not have it easy. Photo by Nico Moolman.

Horses

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Feeding Horses in Riebeeck Square Photo: Arthur Elliott (1870-1938)
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‘n Ou negatief se kiekie. Photo supplied by Nico Moolman.

Iain Hayter writes about the remounts at Port Elizabeth. “At the best of times, the unloading facilities with their archaic method of discharging their cargo onto surfboats bobbing next to the transport ship, far at sea, was inefficient. Now there was pandemonium with dozens of vessels of all shapes and sizes riding at anchor in the Bay, patiently waiting to discharge their cargoes. Priority was given as follows: troops, remounts, mules preceded by military hardware, medical equipment, mail and finally coal for the railways.

What became abundantly clear early on in the war that the mortality rate of the horses was excessive. Instead of addressing the root cause which was not attributable to battlefield casualties but rather due to death at sea arising from starvation and illness and on land due to overwork or ill-treatment, the British scoured the world for horses.

Port Elizabeth was designated as the staging post for remounts. From November 1899, these remounts started arriving from as far afield as Canada, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand. This initial trickle of horses, rapidly became a torrent. The rigours of the long slow sea journey claimed many horses. Then in Algoa Bay, they were hoisted from the ship into unstable buckling lighters at sea and then unloaded onto North Jetty to be stabled at the agricultural show ground at North End and at Kragga Kamma.

The scale of this remount operation can only be comprehended in terms of the number of remounts transferred from ships in the Bay to dry land at the foot of Jetty Street. According to Neil Orpen in his book on the history of the Prince Alfred’s Guards, this cumbersome laborious process was used no less than 123,000 times between November 1899 and June 1902. In addition to these remounts, the antiquated discharge method also had to cater for 46,000 troops, almost 800,000 tons of military stores as well as thousands of tons of hay. The harbour at Port Elizabeth must have been a hive of activity. One wonders whether this was a 24/7 operation as without the benefit of modern lighting, proper sources of lighting for night time work would have been problematic.

Hermanus

Photo and description by Robin Lee. Cattle on Grotto Beach, messing around where the Blue Flag Beach will later, 1910

Indigenous Houses

– Used by Boers in the ABW

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30125 x5 Correspondents scrutinizing a hut in the Boer Laager at Klipdrift. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels

– Technology in housing before the white settlers arrived

Supplied by Mark Finnigan

Indigenous People – When the Settlers Came

“Mapoch was the first real leader of the Ndzundza Ndebele who settled up near Dullstroom (as opposed to Mzilikazi’s followers who became the Matebele and the Amanala Ndebele north of Pretoria). Mapoch built the ‘caves’ or fortified settlements at what is now Roossenekal. When he died and his son was too young to succeed, Nyabela became regent. During 1892 – 1893 King Nyabela fought what is known as the Mapoch War against the Boers and was defeated and sentenced to life imprisonment. The Caves were under siege by the Boers for 8 months. When Nyabela eventually surrendered all the fit and able of the clan were divided amongst the farmers as indentured labourers and the old, infirm and very young left to die. He was let out of prison in 1899, then died 1902 years later. This is the tribe that later became the people who are known as the Ndebele, with their colourful home decorations and dress designs. They became a symbolic way for the people to identify themselves to each other and show solidarity.”  Sarahrichards.co.za

Irish fighting for the Boers in the ABW

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Johannesburg

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Johannesburg Market Square. 1895. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.
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Johannesburg Market Square, photo supplied by dirk Marais.
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Transvaal Gold Mine. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.
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Joubert Park, a pleasure resort in Johannesburg. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.
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Post office in Jeppe Street, Johannesburg. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.
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Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.
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De Korte Street, Braamfontein, Johannesburg. The main street leading to the cemetery and the township of Vrededorp, where a large number of Dutch reside. Photo and description supplied by Dirk Marais.
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View of Johannesburg. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.

Kimberley

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Mens kan skaars glo elke delwer het sy eie kleim gedelf te Kimberley 1876. Photo supplied by Nico Moolman.

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Zulu ‘Boys’ Working at De Beers Diamond Mines, Kimberley, South Africa. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.

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Kruger, President

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Prez Kruger…enkele weke voor die uitbreek van die Anglo-Boere Oorlog.. Foto verskaf deur Nico Moolman.
The Arrival in Cape Town, of the Mortal Remains of President Paul Kruger. Supplied by Dirk Marais.

Klipdrift ABW

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A Hut at the Boer Laager – Klip Drift ABO. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais

Timo Kok

Timo Kok is the brother of my grandfather on my mom’s side, Eben Kok. He was held in as a POW in the Diyatalawa camp in Sri Lanka. I record the account of his capture and subsequent incarceration in The Castlemaine Bacon Company.

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Timo Kok tydens WO II

Meat of War

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An English Breakfast…ABW style… — with Cuan Elgin. Photo supplied by Nico Moolman.
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Veldt breakfast in a British Army camp. …..ABW… — with Rita Malan. Photo supplied by Nico Moolman.
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Gen. Elliott’s men have a go at drying Biltong. …ABW. Photo supplied by Nico Moolman.
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Photo supplied by Jennifer Bosch who wrote, “On the subject of meat I came across an Interesting photo a ‘vleis kas’ (meat box) Photo label : Spouse of H Voorewind, teacher from the Netherlands stationed at Lydenburg, stands next to the meat box. The left side of the photo is unclear because the negative was not left to dry properly: Eggenote van H. Voordewind, Nederlandse onderwyser te Lydenburg, by die vleiskas. Die linkerkant van die foto is onduidelik omdat die negatief nie goed droog geword het nie.
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Photo supplied by Nico Moolman. He writes, “Boer POW’s having a Braai-picnic……….Note the knives to cut the meat St Helena ABW”
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Photo supplied by Elria Wessels. She writes, “Some of the POWs on Burts Island weighting and cutting up the meat that was part of their rations.”
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Photo by Elria Wessels. She writes, “Some members of a Boer Commando near Colesberg. They have some biltong hanging above their heads.”

Ndongeni kaXhoki Zulu

Supplied by Sakhile SR Zulu who wrote: This is Ndongeni kaXhoki Zulu my great grandfather who saved British colony from Boer with Dick King.

Warren Loader replied to the post: Some accounts say that Ndongeni did not complete the epic trip to Grahamstown with Dick King and there has been some controversy on just how far he managed to get. Harry Lugg’s book contains the translation of a 1905 Zulu pamphlet in which Ndongeni tells his story. Ndongeni was apparently born in 1826 in Zululand but his father was killed by Dingane, leaving his mother and he seek refuge on Dick King’s farm at Isipingo, outside Durban.

He worked as a herd boy for Dick King and accompanied him on trips as the voorloper leading the team of oxen which drew Dick’s wagon. Dick and Ndongeni met Captain Smith’s column at the Umzimkulu river and showed them the road to Durban. He witnessed the Battle of Congella and saw one of the British officers killed. He was later called by Dick and told that he was going to accompany him back to the farm at Isipingo. After nightfall, Dick and Ndongeni went down to the bay, where they found horses and a small boat,and were rowed across the bay with the horses swimming along behind.

Ndongeni’s saddle was without stirrups but Dick said it would not matter as they were not going far. First stop was the kraal of Mnini on the Bluff where the two stopped to ask Mnini to obscure the tracks which they had made. They then moved southwards crossing the rivers they encountered close to their mouths and not at the drifts which the boers had barred. Dick swam the ‘Umlazi’ river clad only in his shirt and Ndongeni, who could not swim, rode across carrying Dick’s clothes on his head. He soon realised that they had bypassed Isipingo and Dick told him that they were going south to the Umzimkulu river. It was only when the pair reached that river was Ndongeni told that the real destination was Grahamstown.

After crossing the river, Ndongeni began to feel very tired because he had been riding without stirrups. Dick lent him his stirrups and he managed to get a new horse and a second pair of stirrups from a military camp [at the mouth of the Mgazi River???]. They rode on but it soon became clear Ndongeni was not able to continue; “..my legs from the hips felt as if they had been severed … powerless and unable to lift them.” Dick told him to go back to Mgazi and watch out on the fourth day thereafter, for a ship passing on the way to relieve the garrison at Durban. Ndongeni did see the ship pass dead on schedule and later walked back to Durban, leaving his horse behind at the camp.

Lugg mentions the rumour to the effect that Ndongeni had only accompanied Dick King as far as the Umkomaas River but he discounts it totally saying that nobody involved in the events, including Dick and his son, ever denied Ndongeni’s contribution to that stirring ride. He mentions that the Natal Government awarded Ndongeni a farm in recognition of his service and that they would not have done so unless the story, as given by him, was substantially true. Ndongeni only received his farm in 1898, which is about as shameful as you can get. But, as I discovered the other day when down at the Point, he has received some further recognition since then.

Sakhile SR Zulu replied to this with great appreciation for the information and added that “there are some rumours that the government of that time didn’t want to praise Ndongeni as an equal contributor and some information was hidden.” Amazing information and a great photo. What a privilege to have Sakhile SR Zulu making the contribution himself.

Scorched Earth (Verskroeide aarde)

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Photo caption “Burning a farm.” Could be in the Ermelo area. I’m not sure. From the album of photographs of the 14th Brigade (Lincoln Regiment) Field Hospital in the Boer War in the Welcome Library. Photo supplied by Andries Pretorius.

Stellenbosch

Supplied by Nico Moolman.

Table Mountain

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Platteklip Gorge, Table Mountain, c. 1890. Photo supplied by Douwe van der Galiën.
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Cableway, Cape Town. Photo supplied by Michael Fortune.
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View from Signal Hill showing Table Mountain, Kloof Nek, Lion’s Head and some of the homesteads in the upper Table Valley, 1895. Photo supplied by Douwe van der Galiën.
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Pragtige Foto deur Henk Sinderdinck van die Moederstad-Kaapstad. Uitsig vanaf Blouberg 1950.
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Moederstad-Kaapstad , Uitsig vanaf Tafelberg.  Deur Henk Sinderdinck.

Photos supplied by Michael Fortune.

Last Voortrekker

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Photo supplied by Dirk Marais.

Naauwpoort

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Boers shoeing horses at Naauwpoort. Photo supplied by Dirk Marais

New Zealand soldiers in the ABW fighting on the side of Britain.

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Photo and the description below supplied by Dirk Marais‎.

New Zealand troopers from the Sixth Contingent move across open country in South Africa, 1901. This photograph may have been taken by Private William Raynes, a Waikato farmer serving with No. 16 Company.

Much of the conflict took place on open plains known in Afrikaans as veldt. Extreme temperatures made life tough for New Zealand troops. While trekking men would often be forced to endure severe daytime heat, while at night they would sleep out in the open with only an overcoat to keep the freezing cold at bay.
Soldiers on trek often began their day at 4 a.m. and broke camp at 5.30 a.m. before spending up to 12 hours on patrol. To preserve the strength of their mounts, the soldiers alternated between riding and leading their horses on foot. Using this method, they could cover 30 km or more in a day.

The New Zealanders who fought in the South African War were the first soldiers from this country to take part in an overseas conflict. Prompted by Premier Richard Seddon, the First Contingent was rapidly assembled and became the first colonial contingent to reach South Africa.

Between 1899 and 1902 New Zealand sent 10 contingents to South Africa. The men who enlisted came from a variety of backgrounds and from all over New Zealand. Many had prior experience in the Volunteer forces but others were ordinary citizens who were skilled riders and marksmen. The contingents were often made up of companies that had strong regional identities and many were supported by local fundraising.
In addition to the men of the contingent, two small groups of New Zealand women served in South Africa. Hospital-trained nurses helped combat the ever-present threat of disease in the unsanitary conditions of field hospitals in South Africa. New Zealand also sent a contingent of female teachers, dubbed the ‘Learned Eleventh’, to teach Boer refugee children in the schools set up in British-run concentration camps.

(c) Dirk Marais

Northern Cape ABW

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The Royal Irish Regiment crossing the North Kaap River: 20 September 1900.. Photo supplied by Hilton Teper‎.

The Royal Irish Regiment recruited from the counties of Tipperary, Waterford, Wexford and Kilkenny. It served in South Africa with General Hart’s Irish Brigade. Around 30,000 Irishmen saw service with the British Army in South Africa.

Iain Hayter writes, “There were a number of instances where Irish fought Irish in the ABW and many poems poems were written, the Irish being so lyrical………
We are leaving dear old Dublin
The gallant famous fifth;
We’re going to the Transvaal
Where the Boers we mean to shift.
We are the sons of Erin’s Isle –
Modem Musketeers:
The famous Fifth Battalion
Of the Dublin Fusiliers.
Let this conflict be a warning
To all Britannia’s foes;
Not to tease her ftirious lion
As on his way he goes.
For if they do, they’ll fmd they’re wrong
And won’t get volunteers
To stand in the face of a Regiment
Like the Dublin Fusiliers

and

On the mountain side the battle raged, there was no stop or stay;
Mackin captured Private Burke and Ensign Michael Shea,
Fitzgerald got Fitzpatrick, Brannigan found O ’Rourke,
Firmigan took a man named Fay – and a couple of lads from Cork.
Sudden they heard McManus shout, ‘Hands up or I’ll run you through’.
He thought it was a Yorkshire ‘Tyke’ – ’twas Corporal Donaghue!
McGany took O ’Leary, O ’Brien got McNamee,
That’s how the ’English fought the Dutch’ at the Battle of Dundee.
The sun was sinking slowly, the battle rolled along;
The man that Murphy ‘handed in’, was a cousin of Maud Gonne,
Then Flanagan dropped his rifle, shook hands with Bill McGuire,
For both had carried a piece of turf to light the schooh-oom fire …
Dicey brought a lad named Welsh; Dooley got McGurk;
Gilligan turned in Fahey’s boy – for his father he used to work.
They had marched to fight the English – but Irish were all they could see –
That’s how the ‘English fought the Dutch’ at the Battle of Dundee.

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Anthony Scott asked a friend to colour the photo in, supplied by Hilton Teper‎.

Russians in the ABW

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Lt. Col. Maximov ( A Russian volunteer) with Gen. Kolbe. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels‎.

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Some of the Russian Volunteers that fought for the Boers. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels‎.

Simons Town POW’s

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POW CAMP AT BELLEVUE SIMON’S TOWN AND SOME OF THE PRISONERS. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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POW CAMP AT BELLEVUE SIMON’S TOWN AND SOME OF THE PRISONERS. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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POW CAMP AT BELLEVUE SIMON’S TOWN AND SOME OF THE PRISONERS. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.

Spioenkop

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British troops climbing Spioenkop. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels‎.
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Photo supplied by Elria Wessels‎.

President M. T. Steyn

Martinus (or MarthinusTheunis Steyn (2 October 1857 – 28 November 1916) was a South African lawyer, politician, and statesman. He was the sixth and last president of the independent republic of the Orange Free State from 1896 to 1902.

President Steyn
Prez Steyn luister of hy die trein kan hoor aankom.
Hier staan hy en sy gesin op ‘n Europese stasie tydens sy verblyf daar na die AB Oorlog.  Photo and description by Nico Moolman.

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Prez MT Steyn, A Fischer, A Browne en JBM Hertzog as afgevaardigdes van die Nasionale Konvensie. Op die “Carisbrook Castle” op pad na Engeland om erkenning vir Uniewording te verkry. 1909. Supplied by Nico Moolman.
Prez Steyn as jong regs-student in Engeland 1879. Supplied by Nico Moolman.

St Helena, Broadbottom Camp, Deadwood Camp.

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Deadwood Camp St Helena. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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POWs in Broadbottom Camp, St Helena. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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POWs in Broadbottom Camp, St Helena. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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POWs in Broadbottom Camp, St Helena. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.

Jan Smuts

Field Marshal Jan Christian Smuts PC, OM, CH, DTD, ED, KC, FRS (24 May 1870 – 11 September 1950) was a South African statesman, military leader, and philosopher. In addition to holding various cabinet posts, he served as prime minister of the Union of South Africa from 1919 until 1924 and from 1939 until 1948. Smuts subsequently lost the 1948 election to hard-line nationalists who institutionalised apartheid. He continued to work for reconciliation and emphasised the British Commonwealth’s positive role until his death in 1950.

In the Second Boer War, Smuts led a Boer commando for the Transvaal. During the First World War, he led the armies of South Africa against Germany, capturing German South-West Africa. He then commanded the British Army in East Africa.

From 1917 to 1919 he was also one of the members of the British Imperial War Cabinet, and he was instrumental in the founding of what became the Royal Air Force (RAF). He was appointed as a field marshal in the British Army in 1941. He was the only person to sign both of the peace treaties ending the First and Second World Wars. A statue to commemorate him was erected in London’s Parliament Square.

Jan Smuts en Louis Botha Lichtenburg 1914 begrafnis van Gen de la Rey. Photo and description by Linda Fouché.
Photo supplied by Nico Moolman.
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General JC Smuts inspects the cadet HO our guard at St. Andrew’s School, Bloemfontein with the school’s legendary headmaster, Mr.FW Storey, who was, like General Smuts, known as the Oubaas. Supplied by Roger D Crawford
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Gen Smuts with Senator Murray, right, and senior UDF officers at an airport. Probably Bloemfontein. Supplied by Nico Moolman.
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F/M JC Smuts reads a letter presented to him by the Mayor of Castiglione, Italy Senior Giuseppe Girotti (shown in the picture next to the F/M). The letter reaffirms the undertaking of the people of Castiglione to care for the graves of South African soldiers in the Sixth South African Armoured Division cemetery. The letter was presented when the field marshal unveiled the memorial in the cemetery during the tour in Italy. Photo supplied by Herman Labuschagne.
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Field marshal Smuts photographed in the Sixth S.A.A. Div. Cemetery at Castiglione. On the left is Maj-Gen. EH Theron with Maj-Gen. WH Everett Poole in the centre. Photo supplied by Herman Labuschagne.

A word from The History Society:

Jan Christian Smuts was born on 24 May 1870.

A divisive figure during his lifetime and long after his death, Smuts’ accomplishments and alignments were multifaceted.

He first rose to fame by fighting against the British Empire as a general in the Boer resistance during the South African War (1899-1902). Thereafter he started a long career in South African politics, most notably by playing a leading role in the constitution of the Union of South Africa in 1910. He was Deputy Prime Minister and Prime Minister on and off from this point almost up to his death in 1950.

An international statesman and military strategist, he also played a leading role in both world wars, attaining the rank of Field Marshal in the British Armed Forces. Thereafter he was also instrumental in drafting both the Atlantic Charter that in part inspired the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and later the Preamble to the United Nations Charter.

Toward the end of his life, Smuts was more popular in the international arena than he was in his home country. Afrikaners regarded him as being too cozy with English South Africans and the British Empire, which they regarded as an impediment to their own interests, and non-white South Africans, particularly Indians and blacks, had lost faith in him bringing an end to a system of racial segregation he had a hand in creating.

Had he lived longer and remained in power, South African history might have been different. Smuts rejected the Apartheid policy of the National Party, which came to power two years before his death and identified himself with the Fagan Report, which finally recognised blacks as a permanent feature in “white” South Africa.

Whatever one’s view of Smuts, there can be no denying that he is a figure deserving of study.

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From The History Society
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Die konings-gesin hier saam met Generaal Smuts en Sir Pierre van Ryneveldt tydens hulle besoek in Suid-Afrika met Prinses Elizabeth se mondigwording.. 1947. Heel regs..Prinses Margaret. ( eie versameling van Nico Moolan.) The Royal family on tour in South Africa in 1947. Here with Gen Smuts … Prime Minister … and Sir Pierre van Ryneveld CIC SA Armed Forces. Photo: own collection of Nico Moolman.

Below: Gen Smuts set the pace whilst leading the way during the royal visit of 1947. (own collection, Nico Moolman)

Below supplied by Melanie Von Steen

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Gen Smuts appears to be in somber mood as he leads the Royals down the platform of the station. Own collection – Nico Moolman.
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The Oubaas speaking with the faithful. Photo supplied by Frans Bedford-Visser.
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Gen Smuts at what appears to be an occasion at a military gathering of sorts. Pre WW2 Glass negative by Nico Moolman.
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General Smuts with tant Nonnie De la Rey and her family after oom Koos was killed in the roadblock by Nico Moolman.
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Genl Hertzog, Sir Herbert Baker and Genl Smuts in Pretoria by Nico Moolman.
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Tydens die Britse koningshuis besoek aan Suid Afrika in 1947 het hulle ook Standerton aangedoen. My ma Dora het hierdie foto geneem waar Generaal Jan Smuts vir prinses Elizabeth aan Oudstryders van die Anglo Boere oorlog voorstel My oupa Niklaas Moolman was ook die dag daar maar het botweg geweier om aan hulle voorgestel te word.Daaroor was my pa erg omgekrap. ( So met die uitsoek van my ou robbies, gister weer die kiekie ontdek ) Photo supplied by Nico Moolman.
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Die Uniegebou op 4 Augustus 1915 en dring aan op gelyke regte. Glas negatief. Geen ander foto hiervan op rekord nie. Foto beskikbaar gemaak deur Nico Moolman.

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Statesman Jan Smuts at the Opening of the Voortrekker Monument 16 December 1949. Photo and description by Dirk Marais.
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The two princesses, Elizabeth and Margaret, together with South African prime minister, Jan Smuts, stayed at the Natal National Park in the Drakensberg. Photo and description by Dirk Marais.
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Crowds at the funeral of the South African wartime Prime Minister, General Jannie Smuts on 15 September 1950. Photo and description by Dirk Marais.
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Churchill and Smuts in North Africa, 1942. The latter was a “fortifying influence” to Churchill in the pivotal changes he made there to the British military command. (Reuters)
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Gen. Smuts at the Court of Appeal’s ‘Opening Day’ in Brand Street Bloemfontein 1929. Note the decorated – Lamp of Truth- above the speaker. By Nico Moolman.
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1905 by Linda Fouché
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Gen. Smuts, and world renowned botanist at the time, Dr. Pole-Evans, discussing a find..in 1930. By Nico Moolman.
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Gen. Smuts, with Gen Hertzog and others..1930’s by Nico Moolman.
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Genl. Smuts on the day of Emily Hobhouse’s funeral at the Women’s Memorial in Bloemfontein. 27th October 1926 by Nico Moolman.
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Genl Smuts and D Krige … Just before Anglo-Boer War’s end … by Nico Moolman.
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A very telling photo. Taken on the day of the unveiling of the Women’s Memorial in Bloemfontein. 16th December 1913. Extreme right: Genl Smuts to the left of Genl Botha. Extreme left Genl De Wet. It was during this get-together that De Wet and Maritz started planning on the Rebellion that followed down the line, and Smuts would hunt down his former comrade. By Nico Moolman.
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By Linda Fouché.
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Genl Smuts wishing his troops the best of luck as their ship, The Mauretania, leaving Durban. One of them was my dad. Chris Moolman. This photo from his album. By Nico Moolman.

Below: President Paul Kruger’s funeral.

Stéphan Pretorius supplies the photo below with this comment about Smuts’ sixth sense

Winston Churchill and Field Marshal Jan Smuts accompanied one another just after the D-Day landings to General Sir Bernard Montgomery’s headquarters, 12 June 1944.

Left to right: Lieutenant-General Sir Richard O’Connor, commanding VIII Corps; Churchill; Field Marshal Jan Smuts; Montgomery; Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff. Here these Allied commanders are seen looking up at aircraft activity overhead.

An interesting snippet of history happened during this visit by Smuts and Churchill to Monty’s headquarters. While visiting the headquarters and as senior officers stood outside with the Prime Minister (Churchill), Field Marshal Smuts sniffed the air and said, ‘There are some Germans near us now…I can always tell!’” and low and behold, just two days later, “two fully armed German paratroopers emerged from a nearby Rhododendron bush, where they had been hiding all along (they had become isolated from their unit, seeing that they were unable to rejoin when they chose to surrender). Had they used their guns and grenades on Churchill (and Smuts), everything would have changed.

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Gen Smuts the young and upcoming politician. By Nico Moolman.
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by Nico Moolman
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Gen Smuts in 1943 in uniform by Nico Moolman.
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Gen Smuts receiving the silver box from Lord Aston as a token when The Freedom of Plymouth, England, was bestowed upon the Oubaas. By Nico Moolman.

Below, Gen Smuts…The mountaineer by Nico Moolman.

J. C. Smuts, the son of Jan Smuts, wrote in the biography on his dad, “Jan Christian SMUTS by J.C. Smuts” that “In May, 1923, my father scrambled briskly up Skeleton Ravine to the summit of Table Mountain, where he unveiled a memorial at Maclear’s Beacon to those who fell in the First World War. He was in a buoyant mood, as he always was on the mountain tops, with the distant panoramas stretching away into the hazy hinterland, and the mists swirling in the crags below, and the crisp air of the lofty spaces fanning the heated brow. Here, to a group of hardy climbers squatted on the grey rocks around him, he delivered the greatest and most inspired oration of his life. It has been compared to Lincoln’s oration at Gettysburg. I shall quote this speech fully. It came to be known as the “Spirit of the Mountains”.

Those whose memory we honour today lie buried on the battlefields of the Great War, where they fell. But this is undoubtedly the place to commemorate them. Nothing could be more fitting and appropriate than this memorial which the Mountain Club of South Africa erected to the memory of their members who fell in the Great War.

And this, the highest point on Table Mountain, is the place to put the memorial. The sons of the cities are remembered and recorded in the streets and squares of their cities and by memorials placed in their churches and cathedrals. But the mountaineers deserve a loftier pedestal and a more appropriate memorial. To them the true church where they worshipped was Table Mountain. Table Mountain was their cathedral where they heard a subtler music and saw wider visions and were inspired with a loftier spirit.

Here in life they breathed the great air; here in death their memory will fill the upper spaces. And it is fitting that in this cathedral of Table Mountain the lasting memorial of their great sacrifice should be placed. Not down there in the glowing and rich plains, but up here on the bleak and cold mountain tops. As Browning put it:

Here, here’s their place,

Where meteors shoot,

Clouds form,

Lightnings are loosened,

Stars come and go.

Here for a thousand years their memory shall blend with these great rock masses and humanise them. The men and women of the coming centuries, who will in ever-increasing numbers seek health and inspiration on this great mountain summit, will find here not only the spirit of Nature, but also the spirit of man blending with it, the spirit of joy in Nature deepened and intensified by the memory of the great sacrifice here recorded.

Geologists tell us that in the abyss of time Table Mountain was much more of a mountain than it is today. Then it was more than 18,000 feet high, of which barely one-fifth remains today. And in another million years no trace may be left of it. Here there is no abiding city, neither is there an abiding mountain. Human life itself may be but a passing phase of the history of this great globe. But as long as human memory lasts, as long as men and women will remember and be interested in the history of their storied past, so long the Great War – perhaps the greatest in human history – will be remembered, and the memory of the great sacrifice here recorded will endure as part of it.

Standing here today as we do on the summit of Table Mountain, may I add a few words in reference to the spirit of the place? The attraction of the mountains for us points to something very significant and deep in our natures. May I illustrate the matter by a little story which is not quite true, but neither is it entirely mythical, and it finds some support in the testimony of science.

Once upon a time, in the far-off beginning of things, the ancestors of the present human race lived far down in deep blue pools of the ocean, amid the slimy ooze from which they had themselves sprung. There they lived and developed a long time, and in the sounds of the sea, in the rhythm of the waters, and of the rising and falling tides they learnt that sense of music which is so mysterious a faculty in us, and which is in a much smaller degree shared by so many marine animals.

The music in a sea shell pressed to our ears carries us back to the very beginnings of life on this planet. It is a far-off echo of our most ancient experience as living things. As our ancestors thrived and developed they gradually found the pressure of the waters too much for them. They felt stifled and longed for more freedom to breathe. And so they rose slowly on to the beaches, and finally emerged into the air on the seashore. What a blessed relief was there! What an unconscious sense of lightness and exaltation! No longer submerged in the stifling depths, but with full lungs expanding in the invigorating air. The rising from the sea was the most glorious advance in the forward march of terrestrial life.

But it was not enough. The same process of development and advance continued on the seashore. In the course of time the heavy air of the sea levels became too much for the ever-forward movement of the forms of life. The pressure on the lungs was too great, and the forward movement seemed to be arrested in a sort of atmospheric morass, in which a great heaviness hung, on the spirit of life. At this stage a new great advance was registered. The rise to higher levels took place. Some animals developed wings with which they could fly upward and for longer or shorter periods remain in the high places and breathe a keener air. And in this rise they shook off their ancient sluggishness and lethargy, and developed a spirit of joy which had hitherto been unknown to them. The skylark, rising in an ecstasy of song high up into the air, is an illustration of the new great advance.

Other forms of life developed other means of locomotion and of ascent from the heavy low levels. As the dull, dead weight was removed from the lungs a new sense of lightness, of progress, of joy and gladness dawned on the ever higher rising forms of life. The great relief was not only of a physical character, but had the most far-reaching and spiritual values. And so it has come about that finally in man all mortal and spiritual values are expressed in terms of altitude. The law expresses degradation, both physical and moral. If we wish to express great intellectual or moral or spiritual attainments we use the language of the altitudes. We speak of men who have risen, of aims and ideals that are lofty, we place the seat of our highest religious ideals in high heaven, and we consign all that is morally base to the nethermost hell. Thus the metaphors embedded in language reflect but the realities of the progress of terrestrial life.

The Mountain is not merely something externally sublime. It has a great historic and spiritual meaning for us. It stands for us as the ladder of life. Nay, more, it is the great ladder of the soul, and in a curious way the source of religion. From it came the Law, from it came the Gospel in the Sermon on the Mount. We may truly say that the highest religion is the Religion of the Mountain.

What is that religion? When we reach the mountain summits we leave behind us all the things that weigh heavily down below on our body and our spirit. We leave behind a feeling of weakness and depression; we feel a new freedom, a great exhilaration, an exaltation of the body no less than of the spirit. We feel a great joy. The Religion of the Mountain is in reality the religion of joy, of the release of the soul from the things that weigh it down and fill it with a sense of weariness, sorrow and defeat. The religion of joy realises the freedom of the soul, the soul’s kinship to the great creative spirit and its dominance over all the things of sense. As the body has escaped from the over-weight and depression of the sea, so the soul must be released from all sense of weariness, weakness and depression arising from the fret, worry and friction of our daily lives. We must feel that we are above it all, that the soul is essentially free, and in freedom realises the joy of living. And when the feeling of lassitude and depression and the sense of defeat advances upon us, we must repel it, and maintain an equal and cheerful temper.

We must fill our daily lives with the spirit of joy and delight. We must carry this spirit into our daily lives and tasks. We must perform our work not grudgingly and as a burden imposed on us, but in a spirit of cheerfulness, goodwill and delight in it. Not only an the mountain summits of life, not only on the heights of success and achievement, but down in the deep valleys of drudgery, of anxiety and defeat, we must cultivate this great spirit of joyous freedom and uplift of the soul.

We must practise the religion of the mountain down in the valleys also. This may sound a hard doctrine, and it may be that only after years of practice are we able to triumph in spirit over the things that weigh and drag us down. But it is the nature of the soul, as of all life, to rise, to overcome, and finally to attain complete freedom and happiness. And if we consistently practise the religion of the mountain we must succeed in the end. To this great end Nature will co-operate with the soul.

The mountains uphold us and the stars beckon to us. The mountains of our lovely land will make a constant appeal to us to live the higher life of joy and freedom. Table Mountain, in particular, will preach this great gospel to the myriads of toilers in the valley below. And those who, whether members of the Mountain Club or not, make a habit of ascending her beautiful slopes in their free moments, will reap a rich reward not only in bodily health and strength, but also in an inner freedom and purity in an habitual spirit of delight, which will be the crowning glory of their lives.

May I express a hope that in the years to come this memorial will draw myriads who live down below to breathe the purer air and become better men and women. Their spirits will join with those up here, and it will make us all purer and nobler in spirit and better citizens of the country…”

My wife and I were so impacted by these words that we made it the basis of our wedding vows. See Our Manuka Bay Wedding.

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My brother found this behind a cupboard in my parents flat. It had been lying there for thirty years. That’s my mother in front. Can’t read the writing underneath. My father’s handwriting.  From Barry Hyman Bass‎.
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Gen Smuts as in 1942 …The ultimate Officer in Command. Photo by Nico Moolman.
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Gen Smuts with his Clark grandchildren .. — by Jan Ward.
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Gen. Smuts delivers a speech at the Wanderers in Johannesburg …After returning from England. Photo supplied by Nico Moolman. Sir DeVilliers Graaff just over his shoulder.

Treaty of Vereeniging, signed on 31 May 1902 (end of ABW2)

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Transvaal Representatives after the signing of the peace treaty with the British. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.

Van Tonder

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Foto verskaf deur Giel Venter.

Gideon Jacobus van Tonder was born in 1864 in Uitenhage, Eastern Cape (then the Cape Colony). He passed away in 1924 in the Free State. He is buried at the Rustfontein Dam, which is located on the Modder River near Thaba ‘Nchu. He was the owner of the farm Brakfontein in that area. He also resided at 21 Hill Street, Bloemfontein. From 1894 to 1900 he was minister of Agriculture in the Orange Free State Government. Giel Venter from Fauresmith gave me this information. Giel is one of his descendants. If Gideon was still alive we would have spent many days talking about farming and animal husbandry and of course, bacon curing!

When President Steyn was out of the country or on leave, he acted as State President on numerous occasions. When the ABW broke out, he resigned from government after his son, Hansie, was killed at the battle of Magersfontein. Genl. De Wet wrote about it in his book, Three Years’ War.

De Wet wrote: “I can only remember three instances of anyone being hurt by the shells. A young burgher, while riding behind a ridge and thus quite hidden from the enemy, was hit by a bomb, and both he and his horse were blown to atoms. This youth was a son of Mr. Gideon van Tonder, a member of the Executive Council.”

I am planning a visit to Giel, as soon as it is permitted and will update this section with much more information.

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In the photo is Gideon Jacobus van Tonder, his wife and children in 1914. Hansie is not there. Killed in Magersfontein, 1899. Another photo sent to me by Giel Venter and beautifully preserved in the Van Tonder House he set up in Fauresmith.

Vredefort Concentration Camp ABW

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Concentration Camp at Vredefort, Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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Concentration Camp at Vredefort, Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.
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Sports day for the inhabitants of Vredefort Concentration Camp. Photo supplied by Elria Wessels.‎

Further Reading


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